ISRO experimenting with potential structures for lunar habitation

In its second mission, Chandrayaan-2 will be made to land on the moon’s yet-unexplored south pole.

The Indian Space Research Organisation is experimenting with potential structures for lunar habitation, the government today told the Lok Sabha.

In a written response to a question in the Lok Sabha, Jitendra Singh, minister of state in the Prime Minister’s Office that looks after the Department of Space, said, “The ISRO, along with academic institutions, is doing experimentation on potential structures for lunar habitation.”

The minister was responding to a question on whether the ISRO has started working on building igloo-like habitats on the lunar surface for potential future missions.

An igloo is a shelter, a place for people to stay warm and dry made from blocks of snow placed on top of each other.

“Various options are being studied about the requirements and complexities of habitats. The study is more towards futuristic developments,” Singh said.

ISRO had first launched its Moon mission Chandrayaan-1 in 2008. In its second mission — the Chandrayaan-2— a rover will be made to land on the moon’s yet-unexplored south pole. The rover will send high-quality pictures that will help in better understanding the moon.

India joins Europe’s satellite data sharing pool

India has joined Europe’s mega global arrangement of sharing data from Earth observation satellites, called Copernicus.

Data from a band of Indian remote sensing satellites will be available to the European Copernicus programme while designated Indian institutional users will in return get to access free data from Europe’s six Sentinel satellites and those of other space agencies that are part of the programme, at their cost.

The space-based information will be used for forecasting disasters, providing emergency response and rescue of people during disasters; to glean land, ocean data; and for issues of security, agriculture, climate change and atmosphere, according to a statement issued by the European Commission here.

The agreement was signed in Bengaluru on Monday by Philippe Brunet, Director for Space Policy, Copernicus and Defence, on behalf of the EC and by P.G. Diwakar, Scientific Secretary, Indian Space Research Organisation.

The multi-billion-euro Copernicus is Europe’s system for monitoring the Earth using satellite data. It is coordinated and managed by the EC.

Wide range

The free and open data policy is said to have a wide range of applications that can attract users in Europe and outside. The Copernicus emergency response mapping system was activated on at least two Indian occasions — during the 2014 floods in Andhra Pradesh in October 2014 and after the 2013 storm in Odisha.

“Under this arrangement, the European Commission intends to provide India with free, full and open access to the data from the Copernicus Sentinel family of satellites using high bandwidth connections. Reciprocally the Department of Space will provide the Copernicus programme and its participating states with a free, full and open access to the data from ISRO’s land, ocean and atmospheric series of civilian satellites (Oceansat-2, Megha-Tropiques, Scatsat-1, SARAL, INSAT-3D, INSAT-3DR) with the exception of commercial high-resolution satellites data,” EC said.

The arrangement includes technical assistance for setting up high bandwidth connections with ISRO sites, mirror servers, data storage and archival facilities.

Airtel offers Celkon 4G smartphone at ₹1,349

Telecom service provider Bharti Airtel has joined hands with mobile phone maker Celkon to offer its pre-paid customers 4G smartphone at an effective price of ₹1,349.

The current market price of the Celkon Smart 4G model, which comes with 4-inch touch-screen, dual SIM slots, 1 GB RAM and 8GB ROM, is ₹3,500.

Launched under the ‘MeraPehla Smartphone’ initiative of Airtel, customers need to make a down payment of ₹2,849 towards the device. Further, they need to make 36 continuous monthly recharges of ₹169. After 18 months, the customers will get a cash refund of ₹500 and after 36 months an additional ₹1,000, Airtel said.

Describing it as a stylish and affordable 4G phone, CEO (AP and Telangana) of Bharti Airtel Venkatesh Vijayaraghavan told presspersons…

Also http://indiannationalnews.com/android-tips-tricks/

Useful Android Tips And Tricks You Should Know

Here,We'll be discussing some Useful Android Tips and Tricks that has been collected from 
Various Sites.Let's Start.

Charge your device using the USB port in the back of the television.

When you’re packing for a trip it’s easy to forget a few things, even if you’ve got a great, geeky travel checklist. If you forget your charger, the television in your hotel room can fill in as a substitute.

“I often travel with a single charger and multiple devices to avoid packing too many things, but I’ve neglected to use the TV as a spare power source despite knowing this tip. While not every hotel television will have this option, it’s a good thing to remember in case you’re in a bind or would find it convenient to have that extra charger without packing it.”

Disable App Notifications

Bugged by annoying app notifications that just keep coming? If you don’t know already, these app notifications also drain your phone’s battery. If you want to turn them off, and you are on Jelly Bean 4.1 and above, here’s how:

  1. On any of your unwanted notifications in your notification bar, long press on the notification for a message box to appear.
  2. Tap on App Info > Untick Show Notifications > OK.

Disable Animations

Here’s a tip on how to make your Android device run a bit smoother: disable its animations. You will need to have access to Developer Options which can be found under Settings or About device.

Note: For some phones, you may need to go to Build number and tap on it repeatedly until you see “You are now a developer!”. Developer options are now enabled.

Under enabled Developer options, look for Window animation scaleTransition animation scale, and Animator duration scale. Then, turn them off (disable) them one at a time.

How to Turn Off Auto-Correction

Hate the fact that your phone is going English teacher mode on you? Turn off auto-correction for peace of mind when texting.

  1. Go to Settings > Language & input.
  2. Tap on the settings icon next to the keyboard that you are using, e.g. Google Keyboard.
  3. Look for Auto-correction and tap on it.
  4. Select Off to turn auto-correction off.

Don’t use your smartphone while charging it.

“Ever wondered why phone manufacturers make such short charging cables? Do they want to save money? No, the answer is — They don’t want you to use the phone while charging. Yes, they discourage the idea of simultaneously charging and using it, as it reduces battery life to a large extent. Most phones run on Li-ion batteries and these batteries have a limited charge cycle after which they need to be replaced.”

Extend your battery with low power mode.

“Your battery is at a low percentage, and you’re nowhere near a charger. Don’t panic just yet. If your phone is running on iOS9, go to Settings > Battery > Low Power Mode. (Siri can do this for you too.) By going into Low Power Mode, non-essential tasks are disabled, giving you up to FOUR more hours of battery life.”

Extend your battery with low power mode.

“Your battery is at a low percentage, and you’re nowhere near a charger. Don’t panic just yet. If your phone is running on iOS9, go to Settings > Battery > Low Power Mode. (Siri can do this for you too.) By going into Low Power Mode, non-essential tasks are disabled, giving you up to FOUR more hours of battery life.”

Use the volume button to snap pictures.

“Taking selfies is serious business. But it doesn’t have to be a difficult one. It’s surprising how many people don’t realize that you can just hit either volume button (on most phone models—both iOS and Android) to snap a picture. You don’t have to hit the virtual button that’s on your screen. This works on both the front- and back-facing cameras, but it’s particularly handy when shooting a selfie. If you didn’t know this before, you will never go back to shooting by tapping the screen. We were able to confirm this feature on various iPhones and several Android models.”

Make better use of your smartphone’s camera – it’s not just for selfies.

“It seems so simple, but getting more mileage out of your phone’s camera can truly make your life easier. Snap a picture of your fridge/pantry before you head to the grocery store so that you know exactly what to buy. Suffer from parked-car memory failure? Take a picture of the closest intersection to your car’s location. Use your smartphone camera to store highly useful information like your prescriptions (photos of your medicine bottles), your frequent flier number (photo of your frequent flier card), or your hotel’s address (photo/screen-grab of your travel itinerary) in case you lose service.”

You’re not limited to the camera app that comes with your smartphone.

“The camera app that comes with your phone is perfectly adequate (if somewhat minimalist) most of the time. But what if you want to capture the light trails of cars driving past a nighttime holiday display? Or maybe you want to use your phone’s digital zoom while shooting a video of kids unwrapping presents? If so, it’s time to check out one of the many camera apps in your phone’s app store. On the iPhone, I highly recommend Top Camera, which does all the above and more. If you’re looking for other camera-enhancing apps, we have several great suggestions for iPhones and Android phones.

How to Recover deleted data in Mobile….

 

Generate Electricity From Your Windows Using SolarGaps’ Blinds

If solar panels on the roof offend your aesthetic sensibilities and Tesla’s sun-soaking roof tiles aren’t quite in your budget, then maybe the roof isn’t the right place for you to harvest the sun. SolarGaps allows you to do that from the window instead.

A set of window blinds equipped with solar panels, the rig allows you to harvest sunlight at home without complicated roof installations, so you can supplement your connection to the grid with sustainably-generated power. Since these are just windows blinds, there are no permanent installations, making it a straightforward plug-and-play solution that you can set up and remove at any time.

Each SolarGap look no different than traditional window blinds from afar, although you will notice the presence of photovoltaic cells once you start inspecting up close. Each 10-square foot window area covered by the blinds can generate as much 150W of power, which should be enough to power all the lights in your home, as well as three MacBooks all running at the same time. While they can be opened and closed much like any set of window blinds, it comes with an accompanying app (iOS and Android) where you can adjust them remotely, with options for various automated movements (e.g. it can align itself to maximize sun harvest all through the day). Each set of blind…..

Hydrogen Bomb vs. Atomic Bomb: What’s the Difference?

North Korea is threatening to test a hydrogen bomb over the Pacific Ocean in response to President Donald Trump ordering new sanctions on individuals, companies, and banks that conduct business with the notoriously reclusive country, according to news reports.

Hydrogen bombs, or thermonuclear bombs, are more powerful than atomic or “fission” bombs. The difference between thermonuclear bombs and fission bombs begins at the atomic level. [The 10 Greatest Explosions Ever]

Fission bombs, like those used to devastate the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima during World War II, work by splitting the nucleus of an atom. When the neutrons, or neutral particles, of the atom’s nucleus split, some hit the nuclei of nearby atoms, splitting them, too. The result is a very explosive chain reaction. The bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki exploded with the yield of 15 kilotons and 20 kilotons of TNT, respectively, according to the Union of Concerned Scientists.

In contrast, the first test of a thermonuclear weapon, or hydrogen bomb, in the United States in November 1952 yielded an explosion on the order of 10,000 kilotons of TNT. Thermonuclear bombs start with the same fission reaction that powers atomic bombs — but the majority of the uranium or plutonium in atomic bombs actually goes unused. In a thermonuclear bomb, an additional step means that more of the bomb’s explosive power becomes available.

First, an igniting explosion compresses a sphere of plutonium-239, the material that will then undergo fission. Inside this pit of plutonium-239 is a chamber of hydrogen gas. The high temperatures and pressures created by the plutonium-239 fission cause the hydrogen atoms to fuse. This fusion process releases neutrons, which feed back into the plutonium-239, splitting more atoms and boosting the fission chain reaction.

Governments around the world use global monitoring systems to detect nuclear tests as par…

WhatsApp Introduces New Feature “Delete For Everyone”

Whatsapp recently introduced a new feature “Delete for Everyone”.

Sometimes, We mistakenly send a message to a wrong person and then we feel awkward.This “Delete For Everyone” feature introduced by WhatsApp will now rescue us from such situation.

Now, If you delete a message then it’s also get deleted from recipient’s conversation if both of the users have Latest version of WhatsApp installed.The feature works the same for group chats also including texts, videos etc but does not work for broadcast messages.

The message can be deleted only if it’s not yet read and you have the option to review and delete it from the recipient’s chat for only “7 minutes from sending the text”

Find Your Lost Phone Using Android Device Manager

Android Device Manager is the feature of Google which allows a user to find his/her lost phone/tablet location.Android Device Manager does not only helps to find lost phone/tablet but also enables a user to erase data of his/her lost phone and to lock it remotely.But, you will be able to find your Lost phone only if you had activated Android Device Manager in it, if you had not activated it in your lost phone, then you will not be able to find the location of your lost phone.But, you should activate Android Device Manager to your phone/tablet so that in future if you lose your phone, you may find it’s location.Well, to activate Android Device Manager in your phone/tablet, go to Settings>>Location>>and enable Google’s Location service And Click on Agree. Now, go to google settings >> Security and click on remotely Locate This Device.

Now, if you lose your phone in future, simply type Android Device Manager in Google and click on the first result shown or click on this link google.com/android/devicemanager.

After clicking on it, you will have to enter your Gmail Id which you used on your phone/tablet to access Google.After Logging in, a window will open, having Several options like Ring, Lock, Erase and Locate Device.Click on Locate Device and the current location of your phone/tablet will be shown on Google Map.

You can also use other options of Android Device Manager like you can Ring your Phone even if it is on silent mode.Just Click on Ring option.

 

You can Erase your Phone data.Click on Erase.Simple.

 

The Last thing you can do with the help of ADM is to lock your phone.Just Click on Lock option.

Earn Money Online Using Ebook + Facebook

In This Article, I will teach you in the simple way how you can start earning money online by selling E-Books investing Rs. 100 Only. Yes, you have heard it right. Believe me, this is the genuine way through which you can actually start earning money as I am.

I was also one of the guys who wasted the precious time in searching the genuine way to start making money online. I searched a lot of methods and tried them but none of them worked for me as some required an investment to start which I didn’t afford as I was not financially strong. Then, one day, I tried one of the methods to earn money online which finally worked for me and that method is to sell E-Books online.

So, let’s start on how to make money by selling E-Book with the help of Facebook.

 

Let’s divide the complete procedure into 3 Simple steps to understand the things easily:-

 

Step 1: Create an EBook.

 

Step 2:  Create an Account on InstaMojo to Sell E-Book to the customer and accept payment.

 

Step 3: Create an FB Page to promote your E-Book to get maximum customers.

 

Step 1: Create an E-Book

 

 

First of All, let’s understand that what is an E-Book?

“ E-Books are books in a format where they can be delivered or downloaded online. You can write them yourself, employ writers, use public domain content, and create your ebooks from many sources”.

It’s not necessary that an E-Book should have hundreds or thousands of pages; it can be even of few pages also if it’s covering the topic in well mannered.

 

What topic to Choose?

 

It depends on you that on what topic you can write an E-book and that E-book should attract the customers. The title of the book should be catchy enough to attract the customers. You can do Google search on the top trending keywords and then write an E-Book on that topic.

For Example, In India, most of the Students prepare for the government exams. So, you can write the topics, questions, answers of that particular government exam that is going to be conducted in the coming days. Another trending topic is cooking. Most of the women search the cooking recipes over the internet. So, cooking is also a good option to write E-Book upon.

 

 

 

Step 2 Create an Account on InstaMojo to Sell E-Book to the customer and accept payment.

 

Here Comes the Second Step after you have created your E-Book. Now, you need some way to accept payment from your customer if you decided to sell your E-Book for 20 Rs for example, then you need to accept 20 Rs from the customer. This can be done using InstaMojo.

Briefly, Instamojo.com is a digital payments platform bundled with tons of e-commerce features to enable any business or individual to sell, manage & grow effortlessly, securely and cost-effectively.

Instamojo.com used as a platform to sell digital products like eBooks, music, software etc as downloads, directly to your audience by sharing a link.

Upon clicking the link, it would lead to a landing page (optimized across mobile, web & tablet) which carried information of the product like price, description, file size, file type, images and other relevant info. Here’s an example — http://imojo.in/example. So sellers/merchants would create such links and upon sharing, buyers/consumers can make an instant purchase.

From their end, they would host the digital files, process the payments through credit cards, debit cards, net-banking facilities and then they securely deliver the digital goods once payment is successful. Hence enabling individuals, freelancers, SOHO businesses to sell & collect payments for digital goods, directly from customers by sharing a payment link.

So, you have to just create your account on InstaMojo and Upload your E-book on InstaMojo and assign the cost to your E-book that would be charged from the customer.

 

 

 

Complete Procedure To Sell Your E-Book through Instamojo.

 

1   Sign up on InstaMojo
2   Complete all the mandatory steps – upload the KYC documents,     verify your phone number and set up your payout details.
3. Start selling eBooks via InstaMojo.

 

Adding an eBook on Instamojo

Click on “Add Product“.

Now choose “Digital Product” and upload the PDF file you want to sell.

Add Product Title, description, and price (write “0” to make it free).

Upload a preview image, Instamojo supports PNG, JPEG and JPG formats.

Now click on “Add Product to Store“.

That’s it. Instamojo will give you a customizable short link for your eBook. Customize it to make it cool like – http://imojo.in/firstebook and promote it on your Blog, Social Media platforms.

Instamojo will charge 5% + Rs.3 for selling an eBook. You don’t have to subscribe to any plan. Your customers can buy your eBooks through Credit card, Debit card, Net Banking and Digital Wallets. Instamojo will transfer your earnings to your local bank account within 3 days.

Credit:  https://bepinku.com/use-instamojo-sell-your-ebooks/

 

So, you have completed your task of uploading your E-book and are ready to accept the payment from the customer.

Now, you just have to promote your E-book to get the targeted audience and that will be done using FB. So, let’s come to the final step.

 

Step 3: Create an FB Page to promote your E-Book to get maximum customers.

 

Now you have created your E-Book and you have to find some way to promote your E-Book so that it can reach to the maximum interested customers. The Best way to promote and sell your E-book is through Facebook. They provide the cheapest way to reach the audience. By running FB ads you can reach to a targeted audience interested in buying your E-Book. You don’t need to spend hundreds or thousands of rupees, Just Spend 100 Rs.to get reach of thousands of users. You spent 100 Rs on FB Ads and your E-Book would be advertised to 3000 targeted audience interested in making money. Out of these 3000 users, if at least 200 Users buy your E-book then you will get a profit of 200*20=4000 Rs.

By Just Spending Rs.100, you made a profit of 4000 Rs. So, let’s see how to promote your page on FB.

Promote your Page

It’s easier than ever to connect with more of the people who matter to you by promoting your Page on Facebook.

All it takes is a few clicks. We’ll automatically pull text and an image to instantly create a beautiful advert. All you need to do is decide who you want to reach and how much you want to spend. That’s it.

Follow the simple steps outlined below to promote your Page.

 

Create an advert

  • Go to the Facebook Page you have created to sell your E-Book.
  • Located on the left-hand side of the Page, you’ll see the Promote Page button
  • The advert will be automatically created from images and copy on your Page. To change the images or text, you need to first change them on your Page.

In the Advert Preview section, you’ll see how your advert will look on Desktop News Feed, Mobile News Feed, and the Right Column. Your advert will appear in all three formats.

Choose Your Audience

  • You can specify the location, age, gender and interests of the people you’d like to reach, like if you are writing E-Book on Cooking then mention Gender as Women as they are more interested in cooking.
  • The Interests field will initially be filled with interests FB think to make sense for your customers, but you should type any additional interests into the box or remove any interests that don’t apply like if you have made an E-Book on Cooking then mention cooking in the interest.

 Choose your budget

  • Enter 100 Rs as your Budget.
  • You can choose to promote your Page continuously or set an end date for your promotion
  • You’ll only be charged when your advert is displayed on Facebook, so your entire budget may not always be spent.

That’s It. Now just wait and Watch how much you earn from your E-Book.

 

Recover Deleted Data From Your Phone

When you delete something from your Phone, then it does not permanently get deleted from your device, it only becomes invisible.The same happens to PC. So, if there is some sensitive data in your phone and you format your phone and sell it  to someone else, then that person can recover your sensitive data if she/he wants and it does not even take much of hard work. Today, there are many applications which anyone can use to recover deleted data from phone and one such application is DiskDigger. To recover your lost data like music, videos, files, you will have to install DiskDigger Pro for which you will have to spend some amount but if you want to recover only photos then you can do this without paying.You can easily download DiskDigger from Play Store.

After downloading it, click on the “Start Basic Photo Scan” button, then there will be the images which you had deleted, and to recover photos, just click on the photos which you want to recover and click on the Recover button placed on top and that’s it.You have recovered your deleted photos. Enjoy…

LIGO makes third gravitational wave detection

The gravitational wave detection was “the first time, a chance event; second time, a coincidence, and third, a pattern,” says Bangalore Sathyaprakash, a senior scientist with the LIGO collaboration.

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors in the U.S. have detected yet another merger of two black holes on January 4, 2017. Named GW170104, this signal marks the third confirmed detection of gravitational waves coming from a binary black hole merger. It is of great interest to the scientific community that the black holes, having masses nearly 31 times and 19 times the sun’s. Until the first detection of gravitational waves by LIGO in 2015 (GW150914) it was not known that such massive black holes could exist.

The gravitational wave detection was “the first time, a chance event; second time, a coincidence, and third, a pattern,” says Bangalore Sathyaprakash, a senior scientist with the LIGO collaboration in the U.S. and an editor of the paper describing these results which was published in Physical Review Letters

NASA to fly Solar Probe Plus right into sun’s atmosphere in 2018

The purpose is to study the sun’s outer atmosphere and better understand how stars like ours work.

A NASA spacecraft will aim straight for the sun next year.

The space agency announced the red-hot mission on May 31, 2017 at the University of Chicago. Scheduled to launch in summer 2018, the Solar Probe Plus will fly within 6.4 million km of the sun’s surface right into the solar atmosphere. It will be subjected to brutal heat and radiation like no other man-made structure before.

The purpose is to study the sun’s outer atmosphere and better understand how stars like ours work.

Indian researchers develop 3D bioprinted cartilage

It is the first time that permanent cartilage similar to natural ones has been developed

Millions of people around the world suffer from degenerative joint diseases such as arthritis. Despite attempting for the last 30 years, scientists across the world have not been able to produce in the lab cartilage-like tissues that are functionally and structurally similar to cartilages seen in human knees and have load-bearing capacity. For the first time, Indian researchers have been able to achieve a measure of success in developing cartilages that are molecularly similar to the ones seen in human knees.

While scientists attempting to tissue-engineer cartilage have focussed on growing cells on porous scaffolds, in a paradigm shift, a team led by Prof. Sourabh Ghosh from the Department of Textile Technology at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi has been successful in 3D bioprinting of cartilage using a bioink.

The bioink has high concentration of bone-marrow derived cartilage stem cells, silk proteins and a few factors. The chemical composition of the bioink supports cell growth and long-term survival of the cells. The cartilage developed in the lab has remained physically stable for up to six weeks. The results of the study were published in the journal Bioprinting.

“This is the first study from India where any 3D bioprinted tissue has been developed in a lab,” says Shikha Chawla from the Department of Textile Technology at IIT Delhi and the first author of the paper.

“The silk protein has different amino acids that closely resemble the amino acids present in human tissues. Just like cells are surrounded by proteins inside our body, the cells in the engineered cartilage are also surrounded by bioink that has a similar composition,” says Prof. Ghosh, who is one of the corresponding authors of the paper.

Transient cartilage

While the cartilage found in the knee is an articular cartilage that is typically sponge-like and has a huge load-bearing capacity, the ones produced in the lab so far are of a different kind — transient cartilage. Unlike articular cartilage, transient cartilage becomes bone cells and, therefore, brittle within a short time. As a result, the engineered cartilage loses its capacity to bear huge load that is typically encountered in the knee.

But the 3D bioprinting approach adopted by the team allows the high concentration of bone-marrow derived cartilage stem cells present in the bioink to gradually convert to chondrocyte-like cells (specialised cells which produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage).

“We have succeeded in stopping this conversion of chondrocyte-like cells or stem cells into bone cells so that they remain as stable articular cartilage,” says Prof. Ghosh. This was done by optimising the bioink composition, 3D bioprinting process, and by using a combination of growth factors. The optimisation of the silk-gelatin bioink was done in such a manner that it activated two important signalling pathways that are responsible for minimising or inhibiting the conversion of the cartilage into bone-like tissue.

“All earlier work never evaluated for the production of articular or permanent cartilage, while we assessed and found that our strategy leads to the production of permanent cartilage in the lab,” says Prof. Amitabha Bandyopadhyay of Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kanpur, and a corresponding author.

Stem-cell like nature

The team was able to achieve this by combining the tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting expertise at IIT Delhi with developmental biology expertise at IIT Kanpur. Prof. Bandyopadhyay’s laboratory developed a well characterised, novel cell line from bone-marrow stem cells. The cell line retained its stem cell-like nature even after months of culturing under laboratory conditions.

“As a next step, we would implant this 3D bioprinted cartilage into the knee joints of animals to see if it remains stable in the knee joint and is able to integrate with the surrounding cartilage tissue,” says Prof. Ghosh. This study also opens up platforms to use 3D bioprinted cartilage on in vitro model system for assessing drug delivery and pharmaceutical studies.

The 10 facts you need to know about ISRO’s GSLV-Mk III

The GSLV-Mk III-D1 launcher would carry GSAT-19 satellite which has a mass of 3,200 kg.

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III), the heaviest rocket ever made by India and capable of carrying large payloads, is set for launch from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota on June 5, 2017.

Here are a few facts you need to know about the rocket.

1. GSKV-Mk III  is capable of launching four-tonne satellites in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

2. The rocket is also capable of placing up to eight tonnes in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), enough to carry a manned module.

3. GSLV-Mk III’s first developmental flight, D1, will carry on June 5  the GSAT-19 satellite — developed to help improve telecommunication and broadcasting areas.

4. This is India’s first fully functional rocket to be tested with a cryogenic engine that uses liquid propellants — liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

5. It took about 25 years, 11 flights and over 200 tests on different components of the rocket for it to be fully realised.

6. The 640-tonne rocket, equal to the weight of 200 fully-grown Asian elephants, is the country’s heaviest but shortest rocket with a height of 43 metre.

7. GSLV-Mk III is a three-stage vehicle with two solid motor strap-ons (S200), a liquid propellant core stage (L110) and a cryogenic stage (C-25).

8. ISRO successfully conducted the static test of its largest solid booster S200 at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota on January 24, 2010. The successful test of S200, which forms the strap-on stage for the GSLV, makes it the third largest solid booster in the world. The static test of liquid core stage (L110) of GSLV-Mk III launch vehicle was done at ISRO’s Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre test facility as early as March 2010.

9. C-25, the large cryogenic upper stage of the GSLV, is the most difficult component of the launch vehicle to be developed. ISRO successfully ground-tested the indigenously developed C-25 on February 18, 2017.

10. If successful, the GSLV-Mk III — earlier named as Launch Vehicle Mark-3 or LVM-3 — could be India’s vehicle of choice to launch people into space.

N.Korea fires short-range ballistic missile off western Japan

The North’s nuclear and missile programs are perhaps the biggest foreign policy challenges to the new leaders in Washington and Seoul.

North Korea fired a short-range ballistic missile that landed in Japan’s maritime economic zone on Monday, officials said, in the latest in a string of test launches as the North seeks to build nuclear-tipped ICBMs that can reach the U.S. mainland.

The suspected Scud-type missile launched from the coastal town of Wonsan flew about 450 km, the South’s Joint Chiefs of Staff said in a statement. It landed in Japan’s exclusive maritime economic zone, which is set about 200 nautical miles off the Japanese coast, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga said. He said there was no report of damage to planes or vessels in the area.

North Korea is still thought to be several years from its goal of being able to target U.S. mainland cities with a nuclear intercontinental ballistic missile. It has a strong arsenal of short-and medium-range missiles that could hit Japan and South Korea as well as U.S. forces in the region, and it is working to perfect its longer-range missiles.

North Korea’s state-controlled media had no immediate comment. But a day earlier, the North said leader Kim Jong Un had watched a successful test of a new type of anti-aircraft guided weapon system. It wasn’t clear from the state media report when the test happened.

Mr. Kim found that the weapon system’s ability to detect and track targets had “remarkably” improved and was more accurate, according to the official Korean Central News Agency. KCNA cited Mr. Kim as ordering officials to mass-produce and deploy the system all over the country so as to “completely spoil the enemy’s wild dream to command the air.”

The North’s nuclear and missile programs are perhaps the biggest foreign policy challenges to the new leaders in Washington and Seoul.

President Donald Trump has alternated between bellicosity and flattery in his public statements about North Korea, but his administration is still working to solidify a policy to handle its nuclear ambitions.

Monday’s launch was the third ballistic missile launch by North Korea since South Korea’s President Moon Jae-in was inaugurated on May 10. He has signaled an interest in expanding civilian exchange with North Korea, but many analysts say he won’t likely push for any major rapprochement because North Korea has gone too far in developing its nuclear program.

Mr. Moon called a National Security Council meeting Monday morning to discuss the North’s launch. In a separate statement, South Korea’s Joint Chiefs of Staff warned North Korea’s repeated provocation would further deepen its international isolation.

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, who just returned from a G7 meeting in Italy, told reporters that “North Korea’s provocation by ignoring repeated warnings from the international society is absolutely unacceptable.”

The U.S. Pacific Command said in a statement that it tracked a short-range missile for six minutes until it landed in the Sea of Japan.

Mr. Suga, the Japanese Cabinet Secretary, told reporters that the missile fell about 300 km north of the Oki islands in southwestern Japan and 500 km west of Sado island in central Japan.

Mr. Suga said Japanese officials will discuss North Korea with a senior foreign policy adviser to Chinese President Xi Jinping, Yang Jiechi, who is scheduled to visit Japan later Monday. He said China has been increasingly stepping up and using its influence over North Korea and that the two sides will thoroughly discuss the situation.

Besides its regular ballistic missile test-launches, the North carried out two nuclear tests last year — in January and September. Outside analysts believe North Korea may be able to arm some of its shorter—range missiles with nuclear warheads, though the exact state of the North’s secretive weapons program is unknown.

Despite the missile launches, South Korea under Moon has made tentative steps toward engaging the North by restarting stalled civilian aid and exchange programs. It said last week it would allow a civic group to contact North Korea about potentially offering help in treating malaria, the first government approval on cross-border civilian exchanges since January 2016.

Ransomware infections reported worldwide

A massive ransomware campaign appears to have infected a number of organisations around the world.

Computers in thousands of locations have apparently been locked by a program that demands $300 (£230) in Bitcoin.

There have been reports of infections in as many as 74 countries, including the UK, US, China, Russia, Spain, Italy and Taiwan.

Many security researchers are linking the incidents together.

One cyber-security researcher tweeted that he had detected many thousands of cases of the ransomware, known as WannaCry and variants of that name.

“This is huge,” said Jakub Kroustek at Avast.

Another, at cyber-security firm Kaspersky, said that the ransomware had been spotted cropping up in 74 countries and that the number was still growing.

Several experts monitoring the situation have linked the infections to vulnerabilities released by a group known as The Shadow Brokers, which recently claimed to have dumped hacking tools stolen from the US National Security Agency (NSA).

A patch for the vulnerability was released by Microsoft in March, but many systems may not have had the update installed.

Some security researchers have pointed out that the infections seem to be deployed via a worm – a program that spreads by itself between computers.

The UK’s National Health Service (NHS) was also hit by a ransomware outbreak on the same day and screenshots of the WannaCry program were shared by NHS staff.

‘Smart’ denim promises touchscreen technology clothes

This is clothing made from specially woven fabric with touch-screen control capabilities that can be designed in such a way to visually stand out or go unnoticed depending on designers’ wishes.(Levis)

A young man in a white t-shirt pulls on a dark blue denim trucker jacket, tucks his smartphone in an inside pocket and puts in-ear headphones in his right ear.He mounts a fixed-gear bike with flat, slightly curved wide handlebars. Riding through the streets of San Francisco, he occasionally taps or swipes his right hand over the left cuff of his jacket, as the directions he’s listening to continually pop up on the screen of this advertisement.It’s an ad from iconic US jeans maker Levi Strauss for Project Jacquard, an initiative with Google that the companies started two years ago for so-called “smart” denim.

The future of the popular fabric was the focus at a recent international fashion fair in Paris — after all most believe the word denim derives from the French “serge de Nimes”, a serge from the city of Nimes.

The fair featured many wearable innovations such as a waterproof jacket with sunscreen bands and a cable in the pocket to recharge a cellphone, or jeans that keep your body temperature stable.

Once mainly the purview of athletic gear — with moisture-wicking shirts and trousers and then clothing that can track motion, heart rate, and body temperature — the new trend for fashion designers is to take everyday wear and transform it using new technologies.

This is clothing made from specially woven fabric with touch-screen control capabilities that can be designed in such a way to visually stand out or go unnoticed depending on designers’ wishes.

French-based fashion company Spinal Design, for example, has created jeans that can give wearers with directions without having to whip out the mobile at every single intersection.

Through blue tooth sensors stitched into the jeans’ waistband, the smart phone stays out of sight.

“You put a destination into the pap (and) sensors will vibrate right if you need to turn right, left if you need to turn left,” Spinal innovation director Romain Spinal told AFP.

In 2015, the company from the eastern French town of Mulhouse designed a bikini that tells women when it’s time to apply more sun screen.

The two-piece retails for 149 euros ($163) and comes with a small detachable ultraviolet sensor that, through a smart phone or tablet, sends a “sun screen alert” when the sunbather’s skin needs more protective cream.

The detector is calibrated to the wearer’s skin type and how much of a tan she wants to get, and is “virtually devoid of any radiation,” Spinal said.

The Spinal jeans, made in France, cost 150 euros and also have email notification capabilities.

“They will vibrate differently depending on whether the message received is from your family, your friends or work, in a way that you won’t have to constantly check your email on weekends or on vacation,” Spinal said.

On their end, Google and Levi expect to release their denim jacket sometime this year, but it will come with a hefty $350 price tag due in part to its special interactive fabric that allows the jacket’s wearer to order various products online.

Environmental concerns

Other international etch and fashion companies have also jumped on the “smart” denim bandwagon.

Using thermo-regulated fabric and microfiber cloth popular in athletic wear, Brazilian textile maker Vicugna Tex til has designed denims that will keep the wearer’s core temperature stable.

American designer Cone Denim for its part has blended its denims with technical textile fibres from equipment used on motorcycles — this to better tout the sturdiness of its clothes.

But these companies recognise that there has to be more to “smart” jeans than just fashion sense and connected capabilities and that means making sure they are environmentally friendly.

“The consumer demands greater traceability and ecology, especially when it comes to denim because it is a product that is a bit controversial,” said Marion Foret, fashion products chief for Premiere Vision Paris, which organises trade shows for the textile and clothing sector, including the denim show.

Denim is a product “that doesn’t always carry the best reputation, so textile makers are forced to use more ecological processes,” Foret added, such as making denims with organic or traceable cotton, cleaning denims without water, and using dyes that won’t pollute the land.

In keeping with that trend, Dutch fashion designer Pauline van Wongen makes denims using fabrics from used and already worn jeans.

Others seek to keep consumers better informed like Pakistani manufacturer Artistic Fabric Mills which developed an application to retrace the history of the jeans.

But for some young fashion students the future of jeans is not all about technology.

“Connecting jeans to a smartphone is not necessarily what we want to have,” said Aurelia Martin, who studies fashion in Brussels.

“There are problems that are a little more essential in terms of production, the dye, the cotton, the (jeans’) pretty weak longevity, and the quality.”

IIT-M makes white light from pomegranate, turmeric extracts

This could be used in applications such as tunable laser, LEDs and white light display

Dr. Vikram Singh, former research scholar in the Department of Chemistry, IIT Madras won the BIRAC Gandhian Young Technological Innovation (GYTI) Award 2017 for his work on producing white light emission using natural extracts.

Dr. Singh and Prof. Ashok Mishra from the Department of Chemistry, IIT Madras used a mixture of two natural extracts — red pomegranate and turmeric — to produce white light emission. The researchers used a simple and environment-friendly procedure to extract dyes from pomegranate and turmeric.

While polyphenols and anthocyanins present in red pomegranate emit at blue and orange-red regions of the wavelength respectively, curcumin from turmeric emit at the green region of the wavelength. White light emission is produced when red, blue and green mix together. This is probably the first time white light emission has been generated using low-cost, edible natural dyes. The results were published in the journal Scientific Reports.

“We had to mix the two extracts in a particular ratio to get white light,” says Dr. Singh, the first author of the paper; he is currently at Lucknow’s CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI). By changing the concentration of the two extracts the researchers were able to get different colour temperature (tunability).

“When we mix the two extracts and irradiate it with UV radiation at 380 nm, we observed energy transfer (FRET mechanism) taking place from polyphenols to curcumin to anthocyanins, which helps to get perfect white light emission,” says Dr. Singh. For FRET mechanism to take place there must be spectral overlap between the donor and acceptor.

Energy transfer

In this case, there is a perfect overlap of emission of polyphenols with absorption by curcumin so the energy from polyphenols is transferred to curcumin. Since there is also a perfect overlap of emission of curcumin with absorption by anthocyanin, the energy of curcumin is transferred to anthocyanin.

As a result of this energy transfer from one dye to the other, when the extract is irradiated with UV light at 380 nm (blue region of the wavelength), the polyphenols emit in the blue region of the wavelength and transfers its energy to curcumin. The excited curcumin emits in the green region of the wavelength and transfers its energy to anthocyanin, which emits light in the red region of the wavelength.

“Because of the energy transfer, even if you excite in the blue wavelength we were able to get appropriate intensity distribution across the visual wavelength,” says Prof. Mishra, who is the corresponding author of the paper.

Without turmeric

Taking the work further, the duo produced carbon nanoparticles using pomegranate and to their surprise it was producing fairly green emission. So instead of using turmeric to get green wavelength, the researchers used carbon nanoparticles made from pomegranate extract. “We could get white emission, though it is not as white as when we use turmeric. It’s slightly bluish but well within the white zone,” says Prof. Mishra. “It is an attractive to use a single plant source to create white light emission.” The principle by which the pomegranate extract and carbon nanoparticles made from the extract is the same as in the case when pomegranate and turmeric extracts were used. The results were published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry C.

Though this natural mixture of dyes can be used in a wide variety of applications such as tunable laser, LEDs, white light display, much work needs to be done in terms of photostability and chemical stability before it becomes ready for translation. Biosystems have an inherent tendency to breakdown and so this has to be addressed.

Reversing drug resistance made possible

Drug-resistant E. coli become sensitive to antibiotics when H2S synthesis is inhibited

Indian researchers have unravelled the mechanism by which hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas produced by bacteria protects them from antibiotics and plays a key role in helping bacteria develop drug resistance. And by blocking/disabling the enzyme that triggers the biosynthesis of hydrogen sulphide in bacteria, the researchers from Bengaluru’s Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Pune, have been able to reverse antibiotic resistance in E. coli bacteria; E. coli bacteria were isolated from patients suffering from urinary tract infection. The results were published in the journal Chemical Science.

Antibiotics kill by increasing the levels of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress) inside bacterial cells. So any mechanism that detoxifies or counters reactive oxygen species generated by antibiotics will reduce the efficacy of antibiotics. “Hydrogen sulphide does this to nullify the effect of antibiotics,” says Dr. Amit Singh from the Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology at IISc and one of the corresponding authors of the paper. “When bacteria face reactive oxygen species a protective mechanism in the bacteria kicks in and more hydrogen sulphide is produced.” Hydrogen sulphide successfully counters reactive oxygen species and reduces the efficacy of antibiotics.

The researchers carried out simple experiments to establish this. They first ascertained that regardless of the mode of action of antibiotics, the drugs uniformly induce reactive oxygen species formation inside E. coli bacteria. Then to test if increased levels of hydrogen sulphide gas inside bacteria counter reactive oxygen species produced upon treatment with antibiotics, a small molecule that produces hydrogen sulphide in a controlled manner inside the bacteria was used. “Hydrogen sulphide released by the molecule was able to counter reactive oxygen species and reduce the ability of antibiotics to kill bacteria,” says Dr. Singh.

The small molecule was synthesised by a team led by Prof. Harinath Chakrapani from the Department of Chemistry, IISER, Pune; he is one of the corresponding authors of the paper. “We designed the small molecule keeping in mind that synthesis should be easy, efficiency in producing hydrogen sulphide should be high and the molecule should release hydrogen sulphide only inside bacteria and not mammalian cells,” says Vinayak S. Khodade from the Department of Chemistry, IISER, Pune and one of the authors of the paper who contributed equally like the first author. The researchers were able to selectively increase hydrogen sulphide levels inside a wide variety of bacteria.

To reconfirm hydrogen sulphide’s role in countering reactive oxygen species, the team took multidrug-resistant, pathogenic strains of E. coli from patients suffering from urinary tract infection and measured the hydrogen sulphide levels in these strains. “We found the drug-resistant strains were naturally producing more hydrogen sulphide compared with drug-sensitive E. coli,” says Prashant Shukla from the Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology at IISc and the first author of the paper. So the team used a chemical compound that inhibits an enzyme responsible for hydrogen sulphide production. “There was nearly 50% reduction in drug-resistance when hydrogen sulphide production was blocked,” Dr. Singh says.

“Bacteria that are genetically resistant to antibiotics actually become sensitive to antibiotics when hydrogen sulphide synthesis is inhibited,” says Prof. Chakrapani. The multidrug-resistant E. coli regained its ability to survive antibiotics when hydrogen sulphide was once again supplied by introducing the small molecule synthesised by Prof. Chakrapani.

“As a result of our study, we have a found new mechanism to develop a new class of drug candidates that specifically target multidrug-resistant bacteria,” says Prof. Chakrapani. The researchers already have a few inhibitors that seem capable of blocking hydrogen sulphide production. But efforts are on to develop a library of inhibitors to increase the chances of success.

How H2S acts

The researchers identified that E. coli has two modes of respiration involving two different enzymes. The hydrogen sulphide gas produced shuts down E. coli’s aerobic respiration by targeting the main enzyme (cytochrome bo oxidase (CyoA)) responsible for it. E. coli then switches over to an alternative mode of respiration by relying on a different enzyme — cytochrome bd oxidase (Cydb). Besides enabling respiration, the Cydb enzyme detoxifies the reactive oxygen species produced by antibiotics and blunts the action of antibiotics.

“So we found that hydrogen sulphide activates the Cydb enzyme, which, in turn, is responsible for increasing resistance towards antibiotics,” says Dr. Singh. “If we have a drug-like molecule(s) that blocks hydrogen sulphide production and inhibits Cydb enzyme activity then the combination will be highly lethal against multidrug-resistant bacteria.”

This combination can also be used along with antibiotics to effectively treat difficult-to-cure bacterial infections.

The link between hydrogen sulphide and Cydb enzyme in the emergence of drug resistance is another key finding of the study.

100 years with our closest star /the sun

Indian Institute of Astrophysics releases digitised images of the sun for researchers and science enthusiasts

Every day, since 1904, staff at the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory in Tamil Nadu have aimed their telescope at the sun, freezing the images of its disc. This data, spanning a hundred years and more, has now been digitised by astrophysicists from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru, and made available to the public.

Apart from use in academic studies of long term behaviour of the sun, the data can be used to better understand sunspot activity which impacts climate and affects telecommunication systems. It also throws light on major events in the past which had an impact on the earth’s magnetic field. “From that knowledge we may understand the current and future events with greater precision. This also allows us to predict future [sunspot] activity levels with better accuracy,” says Dipankar Banerjee, IIAP, the Principal Investigator.

While ‘spectroheliograms’ were taken at the Kodai observatory since 1902, it was in 1909 that the data was used to discover the Evershed effect – that gases in the sunspots flowed radially outwards. The discovery by John Evershed put the KSO at par with the best observatories in the world. But its importance eventually declined as it was not upgraded or maintained. In a backhanded way, though, this turned out to be beneficial, because “the pictures had all been taken with the same instrument over the years, and this made it much easier to calibrate and digitise,” says Sudip Mandal, a Ph.D student who has worked on the project.

The data is unique not only in that it spans a hundred years, but that there are three sets of images, taken using different filters – White light, H-alpha and Calcium-K. It is known that the sun has a layered structure, and each of these data sets exposes a different layer.

Under white light filtering, the sun’s photosphere and the sunspots are visible, while the Calcium-K light can show layers some 2,000 km above this, in the chromosphere. The H-alpha images show up layers a little above the Calcium-K images. Features called “filaments” which are related to large expulsions of material from the sun’s surface can be viewed in the Calcium-K sets.

Opening up the digitised data has attracted international attention: Max Planck Institute, Gottingen; National Astronomical Observatories of China, Beijing and Big Bear Solar Observatory, US are interested in studying the way the sun’s luminosity changes. Though the sun appears to have a steady brightness, its luminosity actually undergoes changes over time. Some of the groups. The Big Bear Solar Observatory and the Beijing teams are interested in the H-alpha data in order to study the filaments that can be observed in those shots. Within India, groups from IUCAA, Pune; Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad; and IISER, Kolkata, want to make studies.

A movie that the scientists made out of a sequence of hundreds of white light images shows how the sunspots appear and disappear periodically over an eleven-year cycle. Such movies offer immense possibilities for developing educational software, as classes of students can visually experience how the sun and the sunspots behave over the years. Just like CERN offers its data to science hobbyists, for analysis that does not require much training and yet cannot be carried out without human intervention, this data, too, could be used by science fora in India to build citizen science projects.

The data was historically archived in photographic plates and film. After the digitisation, the images are preserved in high-resolution digital format. “We store it in FITS [flexible image transport system] which is the most commonly used digital file format,” clarifies Dr Banerjee.

Digitising this has been a challenging task wthat involves not just reading and displaying the image but also extracting information – for instance differentiating a sunspot from artefacts such as a scratch or a fungal streak. “It can only be done using a lot of sophisticated mathematical tools. Some are available some we have had to develop to handle these challenges,” says Dr Banerjee.

This data can be freely downloaded from https://kso.iiap.res.in and wis also available on request through the contact details given on this website.

The project which was initiated about six years ago by S.S. Hasan, then the director of IIAP, has succeeded in converting to digitised format some sixty-seventy thousand images previously stored in photographic plates. The team includes scientists and the big team of research assistants at the Kodaikanal lab.

At the moment, the group has released the “lowest level” or raw data and plans are on to eventually release the processed ones, too.

British inventor takes flight in ‘Iron Man’ suit

The personal flight suit is capable of propelling wearers much higher and faster, according to its creators.

British inventor Richard Browning lifted off from the shore of Vancouver Harbour on Thursday in a personal flight suit that inspired references to comic superhero ‘Iron Man’.

Using thrusters attached to his arms and back, Mr. Browning flew in a circle and hovered a short distance from the ground, captivating attendees at a prestigious TED Conference.

The personal flight suit is capable of propelling wearers much higher and faster, according to its creators.

“The hypothesis was that the human mind and body, if properly augmented, could achieve some pretty cool stuff,’ the extreme athlete and engineer said at the gathering a short time earlier.

Mr. Browning told of experimenting with various numbers and arrays of essentially miniature jet engines on his limbs. Along the way, he said, there were more than a few crashes to the ground.

“The whole journey was about trying and failing, and learning from that,” Mr. Browning said.

The first reasonably stable, six-second flight with the gear inspired his team to press on. His start-up, Gravity, formally debuted about a month ago with an early-version suit called Daedalus.

A 55-second video clip of the suit in action has logged more than a million views since being posted on YouTube about three weeks ago.

Mr. Browning said he was already getting interest from investors and some in the British military, who told him they had given up on the flight feature of an ‘Iron Man’ suit until seeing his human-propulsion gear.

“I don’t think anyone is going to be going down to Wal-Mart with it or taking anybody to school for quite a while, but the team at Gravity is moving it along,” Mr. Browning said.

He dreams of a flight suit that one day will allow its wearer to launch from a beach, soar along the coast and then perhaps hop into a helicopter in the air to continue their journey.

Mr. Browning has already seen the early-version flight suit compared to the ‘Iron Man’ armour worn by Marvel Comics character Tony Stark, but stressed that his goal was firmly rooted in the real world.

He also described the project as part of a personal journey, inspired by an engineer father with a love for flying machines, but who died when Mr. Browning was just a teenager.

More smartphone components to be included under Make in India to boost manufacturing

To promote domestic manufacturing of cellular mobile handsets, the government on Thursday announced a phased manufacturing programme (PMP), which will be rolled out over a period of time, a statement said here.

“The focus is to ensure that through appropriate fiscal and financial incentives, indigenous manufacturing of cellular mobile handsets and various sub-assemblies which go into manufacturing of handsets can be promoted over a period of time,” the statement said.

“This initiative will help in building a robust indigenous mobile manufacturing ecosystem in India and we believe that it will incentivise large scale manufacturing. It is our roadmap to ensure an increase in the domestic value addition in manufacturing of mobile handsets.

“It will give a huge impetus to local mobile manufacturing and will help us meet a significant portion of the global handset requirement over a period of time,” Aruna Sundararajan, Secretary, Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology said.

The PMP has been notified with the objective of substantially increasing the domestic value addition for establishment of a robust cellular mobile handsets manufacturing eco-system in India, it added.

The phase-wise programme covers mechanics, die cut parts, microphone and receiver, key pad and USB cable in the current financial year (2017-18).

It also aims to promote the indigenous manufacturing of populated printed circuit boards, camera modules and connectors in 2018-19; and display assembly, touch panels, vibrator motor and ringer in 2019-20.

The programme will be extended to parts/ sub-parts/ inputs for sub-assemblies as the manufacturing ecosystem evolves over the next few years, the statement said.

“We will not get entrapped by protectionism, but will create deep competencies, both cost and skills, which will create a globally benchmarked workforce and complementary industries intertwined with the global mobile phone and component ecosystem equally encouraging global and domestic enterprises,” said Pankaj Mohindroo, National President, Indian Cellular Association (ICA), Chairman – Fast Track Task Force and Trustee – Center for Development of Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (C-ESDM).

Do your jeans have a Bluetooth connection?

Paris show displays ‘smart’ denims that can give you street directions and send e-mail alerts

A young man in a white T-shirt pulls on a dark blue denim trucker jacket, tucks his smartphone in an inside pocket and puts in-ear headphones in his right ear.

He mounts a fixed-gear bike with flat, slightly curved wide handlebars. Riding through the streets of San Francisco, he occasionally taps or swipes his right hand over the left cuff of his jacket, as the directions he’s listening to continually pop up on the screen of this advertisement.

It’s an ad from iconic U.S. jeans maker Levi Strauss for Project Jacquard, an initiative with Google that the companies started two years ago for so-called “smart” denim.

The future of the popular fabric was the focus at a recent international fashion fair in Paris.

Wearable innovations

The fair featured many wearable innovations such as a waterproof jacket with sunscreen bands and a cable in the pocket to recharge a cellphone, or jeans that keep your body temperature stable. Once mainly the purview of athletic gear — with moisture-wicking shirts and trousers and then clothing that can track motion, heart rate, and body temperature — the new trend for fashion designers is to take everyday wear and transform it using new technologies.

French-based fashion company Spinal Design, for example, has created jeans that can give wearers directions without having to whip out the mobile at every single intersection.

Through Bluetooth sensors stitched into the jeans’ waistband, the smartphone stays out of sight.

“Sensors will vibrate right if you need to turn right, left if you need to turn left,” said Spinal’s innovation director Romain Spinal.

In 2015, the company designed a bikini that tells women when it’s time to apply more sunscreen. The two-piece retails for €149 euros (₹10,500) and comes with a detachable ultraviolet sensor that, through a smartphone or tablet, sends a “sunscreen alert” when the sunbather’s skin needs more cream.

The Spinal jeans, made in France, cost €150 euros and also have e-mail notification capabilities. “They will vibrate differently depending on whether the message received is from your family, your friends or work, in a way that you won’t have to constantly check your e-mail on weekends or on vacation,” Mr. Spinal said.

On their end, Google and Levi expect to release their denim jacket sometime this year, but it will come with a hefty $350 (₹22,500) price tag due in part to its special interactive fabric that allows the jacket’s wearer to order various products online.

No media glare for South Asia Satellite

ISRO has been unusually reticent about its launch from Sriharikota today

A communication spacecraft, the South Asia Satellite, which will serve India and six of its regional neighbours, is set to lift off from Sriharikota off Andhra Pradesh on Friday evening.

Some bare information on this regional diplomatic overture apart, mystery shrouded the civil mission until late on the eve of the launch. The 2230-kg spacecraft will be launched on a GSLV, the Indian Space Research Organisation’s medium-lift rocket, numbered F09.

A normally transparent ISRO has been unusually reticent about a less than routine launch. The time of the launch has a cryptic clue – one must infer it as 4.57 p.m. from the duration of the countdown. There will be no live telecast. Brochures that would be routinely released about five days ahead of a mission are still to be uploaded on the ISRO website.